ISSN: 0041-4247
e-ISSN: 2791-9714

Fundamental Publishing Guidelines and Principles

1. The journal is published at https://belgeler.gov.tr/ in Turkish and English.

2. Articles submitted should be relevant for the journal's aims and subject matter.

3. Research papers that are original, unpublished, not currently under review by another journal, and whose content and submission have been agreed by all authors, are accepted for review.

4. Belgeler publishes only research articles. Book reviews, congress-symposium news, necrology articles are not evaluated.

5. The articles that are to be submitted to the journal should have a word count between 3000 and 10,000. Submissions that fall outside the defined range will be rejected. However, the transcription part is not included in the word limit requirement.

6. The papers must have a 200–250 word abstract in both Turkish and English, as well as 5–8 keywords that are separate from the main text.

7. Papers created using the "slicing method" from dissertations and papers having a strong resemblance to the authors' dissertations are not considered for review. With the Editorial Board's approval, however, original publications created from doctorate dissertations might be considered for review.

8. The resolution of any images, drawings, maps, or documents that are added to the papers must be at least 300 dpi. These formats include JPG and TIFF. It is the authors' obligation to secure copyright authorization for these.

9. Every article that is considered for publication goes through a "double blind peer review" procedure. Those who take part in the refereeing procedure are compensated.

10. The publication language of the journal is Turkish.

11. The Turkish Historical Society holds the publication rights to the papers that are published in the journal. The Turkish Historical Society provides financial support for the preparation and publication of the journal. Authors are not charged, and they are compensated. As of December 1, 2021, all articles are released under the CC BY-NC 4.0 open access license. Commercial usage of articles necessitates prior approval from the Turkish Historical Society.

12. Five issues following the publication of an author's first article in the journal, that author's second piece is published.

13. The journal abides with national and international norms of research and publication ethics. It complies with the Press Law, the Law on Intellectual and Artistic Works, and the Higher Education Institutions' Directive on Scientific Research and Publication Ethics. Additionally, it adopted the International Code of Ethics published by the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME), Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA), and Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

14. Articles submitted to the journal are checked for plagiarism using the Intihal software to prevent ethical violations. The editor examines the similarity report to determine whether the "citation-quotation discrepancy" has been noted by the software. The text is returned to the author(s) if any unethical or inappropriate situations are found therein.

15. In order to maximize the visibility of the published papers, a DOI is assigned to each one.

16. Within four weeks of the date of publication, at the latest, the "rich metadata" of each published issue is uploaded to national and international academic data platforms.

Writing Rules

Preparation of a Paper
Language: The language used in the journal are Turkish.
Article Types: Belgeler publishes only research articles. Book reviews, congress-symposium news, necrology articles are not evaluated.
Article Format: PDF and Microsoft Word.
İmages, Drawings, Maps or Documents: At least 300 dpi in formats such as PDF, JPG, TIFF.
Citation Style: The following section includes citation guidelines and several examples.
Change of Authors: Processed only prior to the paper being accepted. Before submitting their article, writers must carefully check the list of authors and the order in which they are listed. They must also include the final author list at the time of the original submission.

Article Submission
By registering on the website https://yaysis.ayk.gov.tr, authors can submit their papers that have been prepared in accordance with the writing guidelines through the Publication Tracking System. The copies that will be uploaded to the system (in Microsoft Word and PDF format) should be carefully checked to make sure that the authors' names are not included.
When submitting the article, the author electronically provides the following declaration:
•  In case the article is published, the copyright belongs to me and the right of commercial use of the work belongs to the Publisher,
• That all of the sources I used were properly credited,
• That my work is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere,
• acknowledge that any decision to publish my work will be taken in accordance with the Regulation on Copyright, Publication and Sales of Atatürk Culture, Language and History Higher Institution and its Affiliated Organizations,
• I understand that the Editorial Board of the Institution has the authority to decide whether my work will be published in print as well as online,
• I will not give up publishing my work without the Board of Directors' approval during the review process; otherwise, I will be responsible for paying the refereeing fees,
• If my work is accepted for publication, I agree to publish it with CC BY-NC 4.0 open access licence,
• I hereby confirm that the information I have provided on the Application Form for Paper Submission is accurate, and I sincerely request that the required steps be taken with regard to my paper.

Writing Guide
• Times New Roman or Baskerville font should be used when writing papers in an A4-sized application compatible with Microsoft Word.
• The title should be in lower case, regular (normal) font size, and 12 points. The title must be in the center. The text may use both primary and secondary headings. Subheadings in the text should be in 10.5 pt, bold (bolt), lower case, and left aligned, with the main headings in the same font and style. There should be a 6-point space between paragraphs and headings.
• The author's name and last name should be typed in lower case, 11 point regular (normal), and center aligned following the main title, which should be spaced out by 12 points. The (*) sign in 8.5-point font should be used at the bottom of the page to indicate the title, university, faculty, department, city/country, and ORCID information.
• The font size for the text should be 10.5 and it should be justified. There should be a 2.5 cm space left at the top, bottom, right, and left. Line spacing must be 12 pt. full spacing. There shouldn't be any paragraph indentation and paragraph spacing should be 6 points. (Line spacing for images and appendices in the text should be multiple, 1.15 pt.)
• Header-Footer: The author's name and last name should be printed on double pages in the header section rather than on the article's initial page, and the article's meaningfully shortened version should be written in lower case, 11 point, on a single page. (During the applications to be made through the Publication Tracking System, it should be remembered that the articles submitted to the system - in PDF and Microsoft Word format - should not have the author's name in the header area).
•Page numbers should be included in the header's top right and left margins in 8-point font; they should not appear on the article's first page.
•Quotations longer than five lines should begin one centimeter from the beginning of the paragraph and be written one point smaller than the surrounding text. Less than five-line quotations are italicized in the text. Italics are also used to emphasize words and phrases.
•8.5 point, full spacing should be used for footnotes. Justified alignment and a 0.5 cm indent should be used for the paragraphs. There shouldn't be a footnote bracket line. In footnotes at the bottom of the page, references in the text should be numbered beginning with 1. There shouldn't be any other references in the content. When citing sources in footnotes, the titles of books and journals should be italicized, while the names of articles should be both plain and in quotation marks. The complete citation for a source should be included in the footnotes at the beginning of the note; thereafter, the author may choose to use abbreviations like age, agm., or agt. If an author's work is referenced in more than one book or article, the author's last name should be included after the first mention of the second work, followed by the full or shortened title of the referenced work. Multi-authored references should list all authors when they are initially cited, and then they should be shortened.
• References: The sources and studies cited in the articles should be listed below the conclusion section of the article. References must be written in 10.5-point font size and should begin on a separate page beneath this heading. Only the references mentioned in the text should be listed, and they should be arranged alphabetically by the writers' last names.

Citation Rules
1. Footnotes should be used in the article texts that are submitted to Belgeler. Before the punctuation at the sentence's end, footnotes should be provided.
Example:
Hatt-ı Humâyûn is a term used for the orders written by the sultan with his own calligraphy,
except in some exceptional cases⁴.

2. The footnote should read as follows when citing a source for the first time:
Example:
Mübahat S. Kütükoğlu, Osmanlı Belgelerinin Dili (Diplomatik), Turkish Historical Society Publications, Ankara 2018, p. 172.

3. The abbreviation "ibid" is used for the source that is cited second time in the footnote, even if a different source is cited in between.
Example:
Mübahat S. Kütükoğlu, Osmanlı Belgelerinin Dili (Diplomatik), Turkish Historical Society Publications,
Ankara 2018, p. 172.
İsmail Hakkı Uzunçarşılı, Osmanlı Tarihi, C II, Turkish Historical Society Publications, Ankara
2016, p. 370.
Kütükoğlu, ibid, p. 184.

Remember to put "ibid" after the author's last name when using the same work in footnotes consecutively. If an author's works are cited in footnotes more than once, the author's last name and a short version of the title of his/her second work should be provided following the citation of the first work by the author.

4. The bibliography section should list references in the order "Surname, Name" and the footnotes should list references in the order "Name, Surname". The bibliographic details of a work are included in the references section but not the page numbers given in the footnotes.
Example:
Footnote: Yaşar Yücel, Muhteşem Türk Kanuni ile 46 Yıl, Turkish Historical Society Publications, Ankara 2019, p. 30.
Bibliography: Yücel, Yaşar, Muhteşem Türk Kanuni ile 46 Yıl, Turkish Historical Society Publications, Ankara 2019.

5. The footnote should provide the page(s) where the citation appears if it is taken from an article. Page range information for the article should be provided in the References section.
Example:
Footnote: Feridun M. Emecen, “Geç Orta Çağ Anadolu’sunda Bir Selçuklu Kenti Bolvadin’in Tarihi Gelişimi Üzerine Bazı Notlar”, Belleten, Vol. LXXXV/No. 302, April 2021, p. 23.
Bibliography: Emecen, Feridun M., “Geç Orta Çağ Anadolu’sunda Bir Selçuklu Kenti Bolvadin’in Tarihi Gelişimi Üzerine Bazı Notlar”, Belleten, Vol. LXXXV/No. 302, April 2021, pp. 17-28.

6. The whole bibliographic information of a work should be included when it is used for the first time in a footnote. When necessary, the citations can be shortened within the text, repeated quotations, or footnotes. Abbreviated version of titles, however, are not permitted in the Bibliography section.
Example:
Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslam Ansiklopedisi (DİA).
Ankara Üniversitesi Osmanlı Tarihi Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi Dergisi (OTAM)

Examples for Footnotes and Bibliography
1. Presidency Directorate of State Archives, The Ottoman Archives
First Reference in a Footnote: Cumhurbaşkanlığı Devlet Arşivleri Başkanlığı Osmanlı Arşivi (BOA), Cevdet Maliye (C. ML), 753/30679, 27 Ca 1196 / 10 May 1782.
The abbreviation BOA is used only after the first usage of its full version in the footnote.
Subsequent References in a Footnote: BOA, C. ML, 753/30679.
Bibliography: Cumhurbaşkanlığı Devlet Arşivleri Başkanlığı Osmanlı Arşivi
(BOA) Cevdet Maliye (C. ML), 753/30679.
First Reference in a Footnote: Cumhurbaşkanlığı Devlet Arşivleri Başkanlığı Cumhuriyet Arşivi (BCA), 490.1.0.0/15.79.7., 02.05.1935.
The abbreviation BCA is used only after the first usage of its full version in the footnote.
Subsequent References in a Footnote: BCA, 490.1.0.0/15.79.7.
Bibliography: Cumhurbaşkanlığı Devlet Arşivleri Başkanlığı Cumhuriyet Arşivi (BCA), 490.1/15.79.7.

2. Turkish Historical Society Archive
First Reference in a Footnote: Türk Tarih Kurumu Arşivi, Osman Ferit Sağlam Koleksiyonu (Collection of Osman Ferit Sağlam) (OFS), 238/19.
The abbreviation “TTK Archive” is used only after the first usage of its full version in the footnote.
Subsequent References in a Footnote: TTK Archive, OFS, 238/19.
Bibliography: Turkish Historical Society Archive (TTK Archive), Osman Ferit Sağlam Koleksiyonu (OFS), 238/19.

3. The Archive of the General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre
First Reference in a Footnote: Tapu ve Kadastro Genel Müdürlüğü Arşivi (TKGM.), Tapu Tahrir Defterleri (TT.d.), 49, vr. 7a.
The abbreviation TKGM is used only after the first usage of its full version in the footnote.
Subsequent References in a Footnote: TKGM.TT.d., 49, vr. 7a.
Bibliography: Tapu ve Kadastro Genel Müdürlüğü Arşivi (TKGM.), Tapu Tahrir Defterleri, 49.

4. Archive of Turkish Red Crescent
First Reference in a Footnote: Kızılay Arşivi (KA), 171/91.
The abbreviation KA is used only after the first usage of its full version in the footnote.
Subsequent References in a Footnote: KA, 171/91.
Bibliography: Kızılay Arşivi (KA), 171/91.

5. Archive of the Directorate General of Foundations
First Reference in a Footnote: Vakıflar Genel Müdürlüğü Arşivi (VGMA.), İstanbul Vakfiye Defterleri (VKF.İST.d.) 579, p. 152.
The abbreviation VGMA is used only after the first usage of its full version in the footnote.
Subsequent References in a Footnote: VGMA.VKF.İST.d., 579, p. 152.
Bibliography: Vakıflar Genel Müdürlüğü Arşivi (VGMA.), İstanbul Vakfiye Defterleri (VKF.İST.d.), 579.

6. Book-By A Single Author
Footnote: Mübahat S. Kütükoğlu, Osmanlı Belgelerinin Dili (Diplomatik), Turkish Historical Society Publications, Ankara 2018, p. 172.
Bibliography: Kütükoğlu, Mübahat S., Osmanlı Belgelerinin Dili (Diplomatik), Turkish Historical Society Publications, Ankara 2018.

7. Book-By More Than One Authors
First Reference in a Footnote: Ali Sevim-Erdoğan Merçil, Selçuklu Devletleri Tarihi Siyaset, Teşkilât ve Kültür, Turkish Historical Society Publications, Ankara 2020, p. 45.
Subsequent References in a Footnote: Sevim-Merçil, ibid, p. 57.
Bibliography: Sevim, Ali-Merçil, Erdoğan, Selçuklu Devletleri Tarihi Siyaset, Teşkilât ve Kültür, Turkish Historical Society Publications, Ankara 2020.
First Reference in a Footnote: Yasemin Demircan, Levent Kayapınar, Ayşe Kayapınar, Osmanlı Dönemi Ege Adaları Tarihi Kikladlar, C I, Turkish Historical Society Publications, Ankara 2020, p. 55.
Subsequent References in a Footnote: Demircan et al., ibid., p. 60.
Bibliography: Demircan, Yasemin-Kayapınar, Levent-Kayapınar, Ayşe, Osmanlı Dönemi Ege Adaları Tarihi Kikladlar, C I, Turkish Historical Society Publications, Ankara 2020.

8. Article-By A Single Author
Footnote: Ahmet Kılınç, “Klasik Dönem Osmanlı Devleti’nde Uygulanan Kürek Cezasının Hukuki Tahlili”, Belleten, Vol. LXXIX/No. 285, August 2015, p. 540.
Bibliography: Kılınç, Ahmet, “Klasik Dönem Osmanlı Devleti’nde Uygulanan Kürek Cezasının Hukuki Tahlili”, Belleten, Vol. LXXIX/No. 285, August 2015, pp. 531-558.

9. Article- By Two Authors
First Reference in a Footnote: Kemal Beydilli-İsmail E. Erünsal, “Prut Savaşı Öncesi Diplomatik Bir Teşebbüs Seyfullah Ağa’nın Viyana Elçiliği (1711)”, Belgeler, Vol. XXII/No. 26, January 2001, p. 12.
Subsequent References in a Footnote: Beydilli-Erünsal, ibid, p. 15.
Bibliography: Beydilli, Kemal-Erünsal, İsmail E., “Prut Savaşı Öncesi Diplomatik Bir Teşebbüs Seyfullah Ağa’nın Viyana Elçiliği (1711)”, Belgeler, Vol. XXII/No. 26, January 2001, pp. 1-129.

10. Book-With Editor(s)
Footnote: Mahir Said Pekmen, Fizan Hatıraları, eds. Hasan Babacan-Servet Avşar, Turkish Historical Society Publications, Ankara 2018, p. 30.
Bibliography: Pekmen, Mahir Said, Fizan Hatıraları, eds. Hasan Babacan-Servet Avşar, Turkish Historical Society Publications, Ankara 2018.

11. Manuscripts
Footnote: Alâeddin Ali Çelebi, Hümâyunnâme, Süleymaniye Kütüphanesi, Hâlet Efendi 374, fol. 290a.
Bibliography: Alâeddin Ali Çelebi, Hümâyunnâme, Süleymaniye Kütüphanesi, Hâlet Efendi 374.

12. Book- With no Author
Footnote: Atatürk’ün Özdeyişleri, Turkish Historical Society Publications, Ankara 2020, p. 18.
Bibliography: Atatürk’ün Özdeyişleri, Turkish Historical Society Publications, Ankara 2020.

13. Book-Translated
Footnote: Gleb Golubev, Uluğ Bey, trans. Abdrasul İsakov, Turkish Historical Society Publications, Ankara 2021, p. 70.
Bibliography: Golubey, Gleb, Uluğ Bey, trans. Abdrasul İsakov, Turkish Historical Society Publications, Ankara 2021.

14. Papers Presented at Meetings
Footnote: Yunus Koç, “Türk Tarih Kurumu ve Türk Tarihçiliğindeki Yeri”, in Cumhuriyet Döneminde Türkiye’de Tarihçilik ve Tarih Yayıncılığı Sempozyumu, Ankara 18-20 March 2010, Bildiriler, ed. Mehmet Öz, Turkish Historical Society Publications, Ankara 2011, p. 658.
Bibliography: Koç, Yunus, “Türk Tarih Kurumu ve Türk Tarihçiliğindeki Yeri”, in Cumhuriyet Döneminde Türkiye’de Tarihçilik ve Tarih Yayıncılığı Sempozyumu, Ankara 18-20 March 2010, Bildiriler, ed. Mehmet Öz, Turkish Historical Society Publications, Ankara 2011, pp. 655-667.

15. Chapter in a Book
Footnote: Nurcan Abacı, “Bir Tarih Metni Nasıl İnşa Edilir?”, in Tarih Nasıl Yazılır? Tarihyazımı için Çağdaş Bir Metedoloji, ed. Ahmet Şimşek, Turkish Historical Society Publications, Ankara 2019, p. 180.
Bibliography: Nurcan Abacı, “Bir Tarih Metni Nasıl İnşa Edilir?”, in Tarih Nasıl Yazılır? Tarihyazımı için Çağdaş Bir Metedoloji, ed. Ahmet Şimşek, Turkish Historical Society Publications, Ankara 2019, pp. 177-193.

16. Chapter in a Book without Editor(s)
Footnote: M. Tayyip Gökbilgin, “Kanunî Sultan Süleyman’ın Macaristan ve Avrupa Siyasetinin Sebep ve Âmilleri, Geçirdiği Safhalar”, in Kanunî Armağanı, Turkish Historical Society Publications, Ankara 2001, p. 9.
Bibliography: Gökbilgin, M. Tayyip, “Kanunî Sultan Süleyman’ın Macaristan ve Avrupa Siyasetinin Sebep ve Âmilleri, Geçirdiği Safhalar”, in Kanunî Armağanı, Turkish Historical Society Publications, Ankara 2001, pp. 5-39.

17. Thesis & Dissertations
Footnote: Erhan Afyoncu, Necati Efendi Târih-i Kırım (Rusya Sefâretnamesi), Marmara University Institute of Social Sciences, Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Istanbul 1990, p. 40.
Bibliography: Afyoncu, Erhan, Necati Efendi Târih-i Kırım (Rusya Sefâretnamesi), Marmara University Institute of Social Sciences, Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Istanbul 1990.

18. Encyclopedia
Footnote: Abdülkadir Özcan, “Târîh-i Osmânî Encümeni”, Turkish Religious Foundation Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol. 5, Istanbul 2011, p. 84.
Bibliography: Özcan, Abdülkadir, “Târîh-i Osmânî Encümeni”, Turkish Religious Foundation Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol. 5, Istanbul 2011, pp. 83-86.

19. Newspaper Article-With Author(s)
Footnote: Hüseyin Cahid Yalçın, “Millî Matem”, Yeni Sabah, 10 İkinciteşrin 1940, p. 1.
Bibliography: Yalçın, Hüseyin Cahid, “Millî Matem”, Yeni Sabah, 10 İkinciteşrin 1940.

20. Newspaper Article-Without Author(s)
Footnote: “İngilizler Dün Münih Şehrini Bombaladılar”, Yeni Sabah, 10 İkinciteşrin 1940, p. 3.
Bibliography: “İngilizler Dün Münih Şehrini Bombaladılar”, Yeni Sabah, 10 İkinciteşrin 1940.

21. Web Page
Footnote: https://www.ttk.gov.tr/belgelerle-tarih/fotograflarla-ttk, accessed on: 01.05.2021.
Bibliography: https://www.ttk.gov.tr/belgelerle-tarih/fotograflarla-ttk, accessed on: 01.05.2021.
Footnote: Selim Erdoğan, “Sakarya Meydan Muharebesi: Saha Araştırmaları”, Akademik Tarih, https://www.akademiktarihtr.com/sakaryameydanmuharebesi/, accessed on: 01.05.2021.
Bibliography: Erdoğan, Selim, “Sakarya Meydan Muharebesi: Saha Araştırmaları”, Akademik Tarih, https://www.akademiktarihtr.com/sakaryameydanmuharebesi/, accessed on: 01.05.2021.

22. Oral History
Footnote: Interview with Alp Arslan (birth 1935) on 01.05.2021.
Bibliography: Interview with Alp Arslan (birth 1935), (on 01.05.2021).

23. E-Book
Footnote: Gazi Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (Toplu Makaleler Belleten), C 1, Ayşe Bedir (ed.), Turkish Historical Society Publications, Ankara 2021, p. 995, accessed on: 01.05.2021, https://www.ttk.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/GAZI-MUSTAFA-KEMAL-ATATURK-Toplu-Makaleler-Belleten-Cilt-1.pdf 
Bibliography: Gazi Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (Toplu Makaleler Belleten), C 1, Ayşe Bedir (ed.), Turkish Historical Society Publications, Ankara 2021, accessed on: 01.05.2021, https://www.ttk.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/GAZI-MUSTAFA-KEMAL-ATATURK-Toplu-Makaleler-Belleten-Cilt-1.pdf